Posts Tagged ‘sex slavery’

Nicole Ebat

OMAHA(KPTM)–There are at least two thousand people in Nebraska who are forced to work as prostitutes. That’s according to research from the University of Nebraska at Lincoln.

Lawmakers say one of the biggest obstacles in helping these people is that the public doesn’t know–or believe–that people are sold for sex. Many have a hard time believing it happens right at home in Nebraska.

But one woman knows all too well that it doesn’t happen–and that it can happen anywhere.

Long, mottled scars running from her inner thigh down her leg are the only physical marks left you can see. Jane* was raped, beaten and threatened with her life every day in the west African country she was born in.

So when a man offered her romance, marriage and a better life in America, she went with him.

“He told me he was going to marry me. When he married me, I would become a better person,” she said. “He told me that ‘if you stay in this country they are going to catch you, they will find you so I am going to help you. Then I said ‘ok, I’m happy'”

The man, known to Jane as Mike, smuggled her out of Africa, but once the plane landed on American soil:

“When we came in he totally changed. These men would come sleep with me. I didn’t know how to speak the English. I would just say why why why? They would say shhh… you know? They do that then they go. It’s so shameful,” she explained.

The man kept her locked in a basement, away from the outside world. He told her police would take her back to her country where she would be killed if she ever left.

She has no idea how long she was in captivity. She doesn’t know how many men there were. She didn’t even know she was doing it for money.

“You don’t know somebody. That person will come, different different people will come have sex with you. That is bad. I didn’t want it. I would have rather died in my country than have somebody else have sex with me when I’m not ready and I don’t even know you. Not him alone that brought me, but somebody else I don’t know. More than one, two or three. I was going to kill me if I [had] any way to kill myself at that time when I was with him I would have done it,” she said stoically.

Jane’s story is just one of what could be hundreds of thousands across the country.

The experts have a hard time putting an exact number on how many victims like Jane could be out there.

“The thing about people who are traffickers, the predators, they are very adept at psychological mind games,” said Linda Burkle with the Salvation Army’s Wellspring Program which helps victims of human trafficking. “Most of the young ladies I have worked with that were trafficked did not see themselves as being trafficked. This was their boyfriend, this was the love of their life. They would do anything for him,”

Some studies suggest there are at least 200,000 minors alone being trafficked in the United States.

Lawmakers say it’s difficult to know for certain partially because many police don’t know how to separate a victim from someone in prostitution willingly.

“In many cases the woman feels so vulnerable and feels so afraid she doesn’t go and rat out the man in charge, she’s afraid he’s gonna beat her up or that’s the person who feeds her,” said Nebraska State Senator Amanda McGill.

She’s been working tirelessly to pass legislation to help with the problem.

She introduced and helped pass a bill that ups the prison sentence to maximum of 20 years. Before, a person convicted of pandering–coercing or forcing a person into prostitution–would only face a maximum of five years behind bars.

The bill calls for a task force to study trafficking in Nebraska and adds training for law enforcement and lawyers to teach them to separate prostitutes and victims.

The Polaris Project helped with the bill. It is a national organization working to end modern day slavery. It rates each state based on the type of legislation and services available to trafficking victims.

Nebraska currently sits at the second to worst rating.

“Nebraska has a good start, but there’s still room for improvement,” said Mary Ellison, policy director for the organization.

It’s too early to know how the new legislation could help improve Nebraska’s rating, but a high turnout at recent trafficking awareness events is a good sign.

“The number of people from the community that are interested in this issue is really stunning,” said Ellison.

State Senator Mcgill’s next goal is to help provide services to help victims in the state start a new life.

“It doesn’t do any good to identify the victims if they don’t have a safe place to stay,” she said. “There are a lot of barriers to good treatment right now,”

Bills adding services have been passed several times, but the Governor vetoed funding for the services several years in a row.

“I think part of the reason he was able to veto that money and not get it is that people don’t understand the vulnerability of these women and how widespread it is. It’s not just a North Omaha or South Omaha problem. It’s not even just an Omaha problem. It happens everywhere,” she said.

Burkle says the I-80 corridor is a prime area for trafficking.

“Anywhere there’s a major highway with truck stops next to it,” she said, especially near truck and rest stops.

Jane managed to escape her captor by tricking him into taking her to a friend’s house. She told him she had “pretty, skinny, tiny” friends inside.

It’s been five years since she last saw the man who forced her into sex slavery. The FBI has never found any leads on who he might be.

“I’m really really really really scared. I am so so so scared. I am scared. That’s why if I am walking somewhere, I don’t like to pass places where people don’t see,” she said. “My eyes are always passing, maybe I will see him. If I see him, I will know him. If he sees me, he will know me. (Laughs) even though I am fat now,”

Today she is working on her education. She is nearly finished with her GED and hopes to go on to college. Until then, she says she feels a sense of freedom knowing she can speak and read English.

“So nobody will fool us again, illiteracy is the one that made me suffer,”

She’s just hoping someone out there takes away something from her story.

“Forcing women to do something out of their wish–that is a killing. There is no difference with killing them. It is the same,”

The University of Nebraska Lincoln has done some extensive research into human trafficking. If you’d like to learn more a conference has been set for the weekend of October 11, 2012.

If you or somebody you know is trapped in a human trafficking situation, call the nation hotline at 1-888-373-7888

In August 2001, soldiers with the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Eritrea were purchasing ten-year-old girls for sex in local hotels.

– Before the arrival of 15,000 UN troops in Cambodia in 1991, there were an estimated 1,000 prostitutes in the capital. Currently, Cambodia’s illegal sex trade generates $500 million a year. No less than 55,000 women and children are sex slaves in Cambodia, 35 percent of which are younger than 18 years of age.

– Over 5,000 women and children have been trafficked from the Philippines, Russia and Eastern Europe and are forced into prostitution in bars servicing the U.S. Military in South Korea

The Cadena smuggling ring trafficked women, some as young as 14, from Mexico to Florida. The victims were forced to prostitute themselves with as many as 130 men per week in a trailer park. Of the $25 charged the “Johns” the women received only $3. The Cadena members kept the women hostage through threats and physical abuse. One woman was kept in a closet for 15 days for trying to escape. Some were beaten and forced to have abortions (the cost of which was added to their debt). The women worked until they paid off their debts of $2,000 to $3,000.

– Domestic servants in some countries of the Middle East are forced to work 12 to 16 hours a day with little or no pay, and subject to sexual abuse such as rape, forced abortions, and physical abuse that has resulted in death.

– Traffickers in many countries in West Africa take girls through voodoo rituals in which girls take oaths of silence and are often raped and beaten, prior to their leaving the country. They are also forced to sign agreements stating that, once they arrive in another country, they owe the traffickers a set amount of money. They are sworn to secrecy and given detailed accounts of how they will be tortured if they break their promise. Traffickers have taken women and young girls to shrines and places of cultural or religious significance; they remove pubic and other hair and then perform a ceremony of intimidation.

“South Africa is commonly regarded as the main country of destination for trafficked persons in the region,” SACTAP said in its brochure. “In many cases, women and children are lured to South Africa with promises of jobs, education or marriage, only to be sold and sexually exploited in the country’s major urban centres, or small towns and more rural environments.”
A 2004 report by South Africa’s Independent Newspapers alleged that “every year nearly 900,000 people are smuggled across borders as sex slaves, child labourers and illegal organ donors, with 75 percent of them going through South Africa.”

“Using numbers provided by informants in the sex industry and migration figures provided by Statistics South Africa, the authors calculate that between 850 and 1,100 women and children are trafficked to South Africa for the purpose of sexual exploitation annually,”

“They similarly estimate that at least 1,000 Mozambican women are trafficked into some kind of sexual exploitation in South Africa each year, earning traffickers approximately R1 million [$125,000] annually.”

The most comprehensive inquiry into sex trafficking and off-street prostitution in the UK identified 17,000 migrants working in brothels.

Of these, about half – 9,000 – were from eastern Europe, of which police believe 400 had been trafficked.
The report, completed last year by the Association of Chief Police Officers after an investigation named Operation Acumen, found a further 4,128 women from eastern Europe, which they categorised as “vulnerable”. The classification included women whose experience the police concluded fell below the threshold of trafficking but were vulnerable to sexual exploitation in that they spoke little English, were overly reliant on their “controllers” and faced other barriers preventing them from exiting prostitution.
The police investigation detected another 5,000 women from eastern Europe working in brothels who were willing to work as prostitutes and could not be considered trafficked or vulnerable.

Thousands of people are falling victim to human traffickers every year in the European Union but most member states have failed to implement tougher new laws agreed by the bloc to address the problem, the European Commission said on Monday.

The new laws, agreed in 2011 impose higher penalties on offenders, make it easier to prosecute across borders within the bloc and give better protection to victims.

Only six countries in the 27-member bloc have implemented the new legislation so far, the Commission said.

Trafficking victims are typically women and they are predominantly forced into sexual slavery, but also hard labor and criminal activity. Some have their organs removed.

Information released by the EU executive on Monday showed the number of identified trafficking victims increased by 18 percent between 2008 and 2010 to about 10,000, although that number likely represents a fraction of all victims.

“What we know is probably only the tip of the iceberg,” said Cecilia Malmstrom, the EU commissioner for home affairs.

“I am very disappointed to see that, despite these alarming trends, only a few countries have implemented the anti-trafficking legislation and I urge those who have not yet done so to respect their obligations.”

Most of the victims identified were citizens of Romania and Bulgaria, the two poorest members of the bloc. Neither country has implemented the new laws.

EU governments which do not implement common rules can face legal action and fines.

An estimated nearly 21 million people worldwide are victims of human trafficking, according to 2012 statistics from the International Labor Organization.

Annually 600,000 – 800,000 men, women and children are trafficked across international borders. Of these, 70% are women and 50% are children. The majority of these are forced into the commercial sex trade.

Each year approximately 117,000 Ukrainians are trafficked. The majority of the victims are women and children. Most women fall victim through phony job offers and are later forced into prostitution. Most orphans fall victim because of the lack of protection and oversight of these children as they leave state institutions.

Russia is a major source of women trafficked globally for sexual exploitation. It is estimated that 500,000 women from Central and Eastern Europe are involved in prostitution in Europe alone.

When police turned up at the Shangri-La, it was quiet. Marinela Badea was catching up on sleep and was awoken by the commotion. Minutes later, on a grey Manchester morning, she and half a dozen other women were handcuffed and marched out of the red-brick massage parlour in Openshaw in the east of the city.

Marinela, 17, was terrified. Trafficked from Romania, she had been coerced into prostitution by a pimp who beat her with numbing regularity. Now there was something new to fear. “I didn’t even know where I was going,” she says now. “I couldn’t trust anyone, I had no idea of the law. I was so scared.”

The sex crimes unit of Greater Manchester police arrested her for prostitution-related offences, but at least Marinela was safe behind bars. Her first day in custody was the first since her arrival in England six months earlier that she had not been forced to have sex. She had been raped by different men 50 times a week on average, often violent, drunken strangers. And if she was released from prison, Marinela was convinced she would be murdered by the gang who trafficked her.

Eventually police would discover that Marinela was an innocent victim of Bogdan Nejloveanu, 51, and his son Marius, 23, a Romanian trafficking team who last month received the longest sentence for trafficking in UK history. Her extraordinary story, revealed here for the first time, offers a troubling insight into Britain’s vast “off-street” prostitution trade. It also raises questions about the apparent indifference of the authorities to tackling trafficking and protecting vulnerable women imported into Britain as sex slaves.

Victims are notoriously reluctant to describe their experience because of the shame, fear and stress. It is even rarer for such women to agree to be identified. Motivated by a courageous desire to expose this sordid, violent world, Marinela has revealed the full horror of her ordeal in an account that should reopen the debate about how Britain deals with its sex industry.

As far as her friends and family were concerned, Marinela vanished. One moment she was on the way home from school in the provincial town of Alexandria, two hours drive from Bucharest, then she was gone. Later they learnt that, just after 5pm one afternoon in mid-March 2008, as she was settling down to her homework in the flat she shared with a female friend, there was a knock on the door. Outside stood two men. One, Cornel, had a reputation for prostituting local girls. The other she had never met. He was called Marius Nejloveanu.

They invited her to a barbecue. “I said no because I had homework,” said Marinela. “When Cornel heard that he just banged my head on the wardrobe and said, ‘Put your coat on.’

“Marius saw my ID card on the table near the TV and took it and my phone. I asked him: ‘Why are you taking my passport?’ and he just stared at me.” From the barbecue, Marinela was taken to a relative of Nejloveanu’s, near Alexandria. There, hours after being abducted, she was raped. “I said, ‘I want to go home’ – so they beat me up. After half an hour they brought his friend in and they forced me to sleep with him. From that day they kept me prisoner. They wouldn’t even let me go outside in case somebody saw me.”

In the days that followed, friends and family tried to find her, but there were no clues. Her teachers were baffled. She was in the third year of a course on food hygiene and considered a rising star.

The search intensifed but a new identity was being forced on Marinela. She was given a fake passport that transformed her into a 21-year-old adult, then taken to Bucharest and forced on to the 4am coach to England. Nejloveanu promised a job cleaning hotels. Two days later – on 3 April 2008 – Marinela arrived at Birmingham’s central bus station.

A woman claiming to be a girlfriend of Nejloveanu took her to a large suburban house in Edgbaston where another two Romanian girls lived. “Then it dawned on me. I was asked: ‘Do you know how to put a condom on?’ ‘What are you talking about?’ I said.” Marinela refused to accompany the girls to a nearby brothel and as a consequence received her first death threat. Unless she co-operated Nejloveanu would kill her, she was told, when he returned from Romania.

Desperate and hardly eating, Marinela began to waste away. Diminuitive to begin with, her frame became skeletal. She recalls watching her ribcage protrude when exhaling.

Nejloveanu eventually arrived and she took her first ferocious beating for refusing to have sex with men. “He beat me up and forced me to sleep with him – anal sex. It really hurt. He was pulling my hair and hurting my back. Sometimes he would bang my head right on the corner of the door. That really hurt.”

Weeks into her ordeal, Marinela relented. Nejloveanu presented her with a lurid set of garish underwear and she was taken to a nearby brothel masquerading as a sauna. She could not speak a word of English. When the first “client” booked her she wanted to say “no” but could not. She wanted to explain her predicament, tell the man that she was trafficked. Instead she cried, hoping that the man would take pity on her. He did not. None of them did.

On her first day she made £300, enough to support her family in Romania for six weeks, but was forced to surrender every penny. “After that I was making £400, £500. After a month I was making £500 a day, but if I wanted a cigarette or bar of chocolate I had to ask.”

Daily shifts lasted 12 hours, 10pm to 10am, seven days a week. Sometimes she would be obliged to have sex 12 times with different men. She says it was normal for her trafficked peers to have sex with 10 men a day.

Punters paid £40 a session, of which half went to Nejloveanu and half to the sauna or massage parlour where she was imprisoned. Most of the men were white or Asian, a number were repeat clients, but most were strangers. Some were drunk, a few violent.

“There was one guy and I didn’t want to do what he asked me. So he beat me up because he was drunk, pulled my hair and slapped me like this.” She pretends to wallop the side of her face so hard her head jerks back and her tongue lolls out. “But they just take the violent men outside. Nothing ever happens to them even if I am really hurt.”

She said the trauma of having to undress for often stinking men she detested never went away. “Even if they stink, and have come straight from work, you have to sleep with them – it was so horrible. Can you imagine how I was feeling taking my clothes off, exposing the horrible underwear that Marius had bought? I was supposed to be in high school, not in England sleeping with men and making money for criminals.”

Those who ran the saunas were instructed not to let Marinela go outside, often for days at a time. She made one escape bid. That precipitated one of her most brutal beatings by Nejloveanu: “I got punched, a knife in my head, my hair was pulled until it came out.”

Marinela soon picked up enough English to decipher the ease with which Britain’s covert sex industry operates. Nejloveanu’s girlfriend would simply plough through the local papers’ classified section and ring up massage parlours and saunas asking if they required girls. “She was ringing to see if they had any ‘jobs’ there. Are there any jobs available? Jobs meant brothels.” Marinela, along with the two other Romanian girls, was transferred around the West Midlands, to places such as Lisa’s Sauna in east Birmingham, where “a lot of girls worked,” according to Marinela, and which remains open.

As the months passed, two more trafficked Romanian girls arrived in Edgbaston. Both had severe mental problems and one, aged 23, was later found to have a mental age of 10. The pair made little money for their pimps and one was quickly sold off.

Marinela’s family assumed their daughter was dead. Her parents imagined that at 17 she was too young to travel abroad. At their smallholding in Silistea, a farming hamlet 70km north of Alexandria, they despaired and discussed giving up their search.

In England, Marinela was being prepared for her next stage of exploitation. In October 2008 she was taken to Manchester, first to the Belle Air massage parlour and then to Shangri-La, where up to 15 girls a day worked. In the brothels she was forced to inhabit, Marinela estimates she met more than 100 Romanians working as prostitutes in Birmingham alone, many of whom she says had been coerced. Her accounts provide a rare glimpse of the scale of off-street prostitution in Britain, which is notoriously problematic to quantify.

Charities say Marinela’s experience supports their belief that sex trafficking into the UK is significantly greater than officially recognised. An investigation by senior police officers last year identified almost 5,890 brothels – saunas, massage parlours and venues used illegally for paid sex – in England and Wales.

The investigation, by the Association of Chief Police Officers, found 342 brothels in the West Midlands. Judging by their statistics, Marinela was among 1,535 east European women working in establishments that featured an average of 6.6 beds. In north-west England, 760 businesses were identified, employing 1,242 sex workers from eastern Europe. In the UK, police found evidence that at least 400 women from eastern Europe have been trafficked, suffering a similar ordeal to Marinela’s. But campaigners say the true number runs into the thousands.

Women’s groups also lament the lack of police action against venues known to be selling sex illegally. Despite identifying huge numbers of brothels and sex trafficked victims, there is little evidence of a concerted police crackdown to close premises.

When David Greenwood, 43, was jailed last year for running the Belle Air and Shangri-La as brothels, the court heard that both had been known to police for years. Shangri-La has since “closed” but closer inspection indictates it has merely reopened under the name Infinity, with an identical telephone number. Its website lists 36 girls, divided into categories from “busty” to “blonde”. The shift structure looks familiar: 12 hours per girl, 10pm to 10am. When asked if 30 minutes for £40 included sex, a female receptionist said: “I can’t say on the phone because it’s against the law, but it does include a massage and full personal service.”

Last week, the Observer took Marinela back to the frozen south of Romania, to be reunited with her family in Silistea. When he learned what had happened to his daughter, Marin, her father, had to be stopped from burning down the house nearby Marius Nejloveanu built with his trafficking proceeds. Her mother, Adriana, wept as she held her daughter.

In Alexandria, returning for the first time since she was snatched from its streets, she seemed uncharacteristically nervous. “I don’t like it here. Marius’s people might want me dead.”

She visited the town’s police station where three years earlier her mother had reported her missing. In the early hours of a May morning in 2009, its officers raced to the nearby town of Mavrodin to arrest Nejloveanu following a tip-off from Greater Manchester police. The chief commissioner, Florea Stefan, said: “Marinela is lucky to be alive: many girls are beaten very, very badly.” He said Nejloveanu exported five girls to the UK but another seven had vanished in Romania.

Trafficked girls are sometimes killed by their pimps. “Everyone knows that,” said Marinela. Police in Alexandria are sensitive about trafficking, but senior officer Voicu Sanbu says between 50 and 100 people disappear each year, male and female. Marinela says she knows at least one girl from Silistea forced to work as a prostitute in England.

Thousands of the region’s young women work in the pan-European sex trade, the vast majority in Spain. Stefan said: “Prostitution is legal in Spain. Some are forced, some want to work, but many, many go to Spain. It is a big problem.”

When Marinela arrived at the police station Stefan was interviewing a trafficking victim from Spain. Nejloveanu’s father, Bogdan, was extradited from Spain to face trial in Manchester. Both were convicted 10 days ago of 34 separate offences. Bogdan was jailed for six years and Marius sentenced to 21 years.

The sentences meant closure for Marinela. Now she is helping at the safe house in Sheffield for vulnerable women, where she was cared for after police released her. With remarkable generosity towards a country where she was so horribly abused, she has grown to love Yorkshire and the city she lives in, and plans to make it her home. She has begun training as a hairdresser while helping to raise awareness of trafficking. She calls herself a survivor, not a victim.

“I will be so happy if I can help other girls,” she said. Her outlook is positive, her company characterised by mischievious humour. In many ways Marinela’s story is about the human spirit’s capacity to regenerate. “And I haven’t even got a mental health problem, which is phenomenal,” she grinned. Her father laughed, raising a glass of home-brewed brandy. Her mother managed a faint smile before wiping away another tear.

Every second – $3,075.64 is being spent on pornography

Every second – 28,258 Internet users are viewing pornography

Every second – 372 Internet users are typing adult search terms into search engines

Every 39 minutes: a new pornographic video is being created in the United States





Per Capita






South Korea












































Czech Republic
















Other 212





$97.06 Billion





Pornographic websites

4.2 million (12% of total websites)

Pornographic pages

420 million

Daily pornographic search engine requests

68 million (25% of total search engine requests)

Daily pornographic emails

2.5 billion (8% of total emails)

Internet users who view porn


Received unwanted exposure to sexual material


Average daily pornographic emails/user

4.5 per Internet user

Monthly Pornographic downloads (Peer-to-peer)

1.5 billion (35% of all downloads)

Daily Gnutella “child pornography” requests


Websites offering illegal child pornography


Sexual solicitations of youth made in chat rooms


Youths who received sexual solicitation

1 in 7 (down from 2003 stat of 1 in 3)

Worldwide visitors to pornographic web sites

72 million visitors to pornography: Monthly

Internet Pornography Sales

$4.9 billion


Children Internet Pornography Statistics

Average age of first Internet exposure to pornography

11 years old

Largest consumer of Internet pornography

35 – 49 age group

15-17 year olds having multiple hard-core exposures


8-16 year olds having viewed porn online

90% (most while doing homework)

7-17 year olds who would freely give out home address


7-17 year olds who would freely give out email address


Children’s character names linked to thousands of porn links

26 (Including Pokemon and Action Man)

  • Size of the Industry $57.0 -billion world-wide – $12.0 billion US

          -Adult Videos $20.0 billion

         -Escort Services $11.0 billion

         -Magazines $ 7.5 billion

          -Sex Clubs $ 5.0 billion

         -Phone Sex $ 4.5 billion

         -Cable & Pay Per View $ 2.5 billion

         -Internet $ 2.5 billion

         -CD-Rom $ 1.5 billion

         -Novelties $ 1.0 billion

         -Other $ 1.5 billion

  • Porn revenue is larger than all combined revenues of all professional football, baseball and basketball franchises.
  • US porn revenue exceeds the combined revenues of ABC, CBS, and NBC (6.2 billion)

Child pornography generates $3 billion annually

Worldwide 9.8 Million People are exploited by private agents for labor or commercial sex

2.5 million people are forced to work by the state or rebel military groups
For more info:

Only 49 thousand people of the estimated 27 million people have been identified as victims of human trafficking across the world

Close to 4 thousand successful prosecutions of human trafficking in 2009

800,000 number of people are trafficked across international boarders yearly
For more info:

2 million children are exploited by commercial sex, globally

More info can be found here:

Click to access Human%20Trafficking%20Statistics.pdf

There is over one million new people trafficked each year

Every minute two children become victims of human trafficking

The average life span of a child caught in sex slavery is two years

The average age of an exploited child is 11

By 48 hours, 1 in 3 people on the streets become victims of human trafficking, worldwide

For more info:



According to the Department of Labor’s findings in 2004, there is proof of children being abducted and trafficked across the border to Sudan by the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA).

Most of the LRA rebels are between the ages of 11 to 16.

The government of Uganda admitted that internal trafficking and sexual exploitation occurs in border towns in Uganda, and in Kampala.
UNICEF estimates that the LRA has abducted close to 12 thousand children since 2002-2004.

They force these children to be laborers, soldiers, guards, and sex slaves.

The LRA beat, rape, drug, and force these children to march until exhausted. In addition, they addict the kids to alcohol and drugs as soon as they arrive at the camp.

To test the children’s mental strength, the officers of the camp, force the incoming children to kill men, women, or children, who tried to run away from the camp.

85% of the captives are made up of children.
There are other freelancers who exploit women and children for sex trafficking. These are usually, Taxi drivers or hotel operators.

Uganda has recently set up a human trafficking force in April of 2012.

To officially commission in the task force, Minister of State for Internal Affairs James Baba said this, “Traffickers have often taken advantage of this fragmentation of interventions and uncoordinated responses and have exploited the vulnerabilities of the very people we seek to protect,” he said in his speech to officially commission the task force.

A report by Uganda’s consul in Kuala Lumpur said that there are more than 600 Ugandan women trapped in Malaysia’s sex industry.